1998 Congressional Pig Book | Council For Citizens Against Government Waste

1998 Congressional Pig Book

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1998

Summary

The Congressional Pig Book is CAGW's annual compilation of the pork-barrel projects in the federal budget. To qualify as pork, a project must meet one of seven criteria that were developed in 1991 by CAGW and the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition.

Introduction

As official Washington ponders what to do with a federal “budget surplus,” and how to respond to a court decision finding the lineitem veto law unconstitutional, Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW) presents a dose of reality. The 1998 Congressional Pig Book Summary illustrates that the only “surplus” is the excessive amount of pork being served on Capitol Hill.

The 302 projects cited in this year’s Pig Book, worth $1.8 billion, are the most egregious examples of the more than 2,100 porkbarrel items identified by CAGW in the fiscal year (FY) 1998 appropriations bills – an increase of more than 500 items since FY 1997. Total pork-barrel spending dropped by $1.3 billion, or 9 percent, from $14.5 billion to $13.2 billion since last year. A pleasant surprise, but it would have been a remarkable achievement, even for Congress, to increase pork by another 16 percent, as it did in 1996 and 1997.

If members of Congress showed restraint out of fear of the lineitem veto, their concerns were ill-founded. Out of $526.6 billion in FY 1998 discretionary spending, the President vetoed only $483 million, or 0.1 percent. He not only missed an historic opportunity to wage an all-out war on pork, he also sent a message to appropriators that they need not worry about their pet projects.

The top three increases from FY 1997 to FY 1998 were: Foreign Operations from $32 million to $202 million (522 percent); Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies (VA/HUD) from $336 million to $683 million (103 percent); and Energy and Water from $270 million to $460 million (70 percent). The best, Legislative Branch, was pork-free.

The new flavor of pork for FY 1998, the Economic Development Initiative (EDI) program, leaves a sour taste in taxpayers’ mouths. When these projects were called special purpose grants in prior VA/HUD Appropriations bills, Republicans took Democrats 3 INTRODUCTION (continued) to task and called them some of the worst examples of wasteful spending in Washington. EDI funds in FY 1998 went to science centers, theaters, an art gallery and other not-so-national priorities. Other popular venues for pork included USDA special research grants and DOT bus and bus-related facilities grants.

Mississippi led the country with $848 million in total pork. The state’s per capita pork was $310, shattering Hawaii’s per capita total of $131 in 1997. The runners-up were Alaska with $205 per capita ($125 million), the District of Columbia with $123 per capita ($65 million), and Hawaii with $86 per capita ($102 million).

Euphoric talk of a budget surplus is premature and dangerous. Premature because the surplus is predicated on increased revenue and ignores more than $800 billion in additional debt through FY 2003, and dangerous because too many officials want taxpayers to let their guards down and not worry about government waste. Who said you can’t balance the budget and waste money at the same time? The temptation to throw away our tax dollars will be greater than ever, and stopping it will require the utmost vigilance.

All of the items in the Pig Book Summary meet at least one of CAGW’s seven criteria, but most satisfy at least two:

  • Requested by only one chamber of Congress;
  • Not specifically authorized;
  • Not competitively awarded;
  • Not requested by the President;
  • Greatly exceeds the President’s budget request or the previous year’s funding;
  • Not the subject of congressional hearings; or
  • Serves only a local or special interest.

I. Agriculture

Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) special research grants are once again the pork of choice for agriculture appropriators. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) officials have traditionally frowned on the practice of funding grants that cater to only one state or commodity. However, from Aegilops cylindricum to wool research, Congress continues to ignore USDA’s pleas. In addition, a large number of these grants have evolved into virtual entitlements. The tally for special research grants for fiscal year 1998 is $51 million, even though USDA officials only requested $10 million. The good news is that agriculture pork in FY 1998 is $119 million, or 24 percent, less than in FY 1997.

Examples of wasteful CSREES grants in FY 1998 include:

$3,536,000 for wood utilization research (Maine, Mich., Minn., Miss., N.C., & Ore.). A perennial Pig Book favorite, this research has received more than $45 million since 1985.

$800,000 for the Food and Agriculture Policy Research Institute (FAPRI). The Institute acknowledges that its projects have never been evaluated to determine whether or not they meet any defined objectives. Even though taxpayers fund FAPRI, there is no requirement that its studies be made available to the public, as evidenced by the lack of publicity surrounding its 1996 report criticizing the sugar program – which only became widely available after Congress voted to continue the controversial program.

$800,000 for the Viticulture Consortium. According to USDA testimony, this research is designed to “help the viticulture [grape] and wine industries remain competitive in the United States and in the global market.” Since 1996, $1.8 million has been appropriated for such research; the FY 1998 total is an increase of 60 percent over FY 1997.

$600,000 added in conference for precision agriculture research in the state of appropriators Sen. Thad Cochran (R-Miss.) and Reps. Mike Parker (R-Miss) and Roger Wicker (R-Miss.).

$500,000 added in conference for ecosystems research in the state of appropriators Sen. Richard Shelby (R-Ala.) and Reps. Sonny Callahan (R-Ala.) and Robert Aderholdt (R-Ala.).

$250,000 added by the Senate for Floriculture research in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii). The original objective of this research was to maintain the competitiveness of Hawaii’s floriculture industry. Since 1989, $2.8 million has been appropriated for such research.

$220,000 added by the Senate for lowbush blueberry research in Maine. Maine produces 99 percent of all national lowbush blueberries, so the research should be funded solely by the state. The only nonfederal support ($65,000) comes from the collection of blueberry tax funds. Since 1990, $1.8 million has been appropriated for such research.

$150,000 added by the House for the National Center for Peanut Competitiveness. (Ironically, because the federal government exerts ironclad control over every aspect of the peanut program, the industry can never become competitive.)

$148,000 added by the Senate for Delta Rural Revitalization in the state of Senate Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Thad Cochran (R-Miss.). The initial objectives of the research were completed in 1990, and the additional research was scheduled to be completed in September 1997. Since 1989, $1.6 million has been appropriated for such research.

$127,000 added by the Senate for global marketing support services in the state of Senate appropriator Dale Bumpers (DArk.). According to testimony, the goal of this research is to identify “potential foreign markets for Arkansas products….” Since 1994, $450,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$127,000 added by the Senate for multicropping strategies for aquaculture in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (DHawaii). Part of this research money goes toward edible seaweed cultivation. Since 1987, $1.7 million has been appropriated for such research.

$32,000 added by the Senate for the Center for Rural Studies in the state of Senate appropriator Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.). A portion of this grant money is used for analytical reports to guide the development of Vermont retail shopping areas. No formal evaluation of this project has been undertaken by USDA. Since 1992, $237,000 has been appropriated for this research.

The following Agricultural Research Service construction projects were also added without budget requests:

$7,000,000 added by the Senate for the National Center for Natural Products in the state of Senate Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Thad Cochran (R-Miss.).

$6,000,000 added by the Senate for the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture in Leetown, West Virginia, the hometown of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.). Since 1995, $13.9 million has been appropriated for this research facility. (Appropriators have long appreciated the lucrative value of attaching the word “national” to their local pet projects in order to throw taxpayers off the scent of pork.)

$5,200,000 added by the House for the Western Human Nutrition Center in the district of House Agriculture Appropriations subcommittee member Vic Fazio (D-Calif.). (Just one example of an appropriator’s “appetite” for pork.)

$4,824,000 added by the Senate for the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, South Carolina, in the state of Senate appropriator Ernest Hollings (D-S.C.). (CAGW has obtained a sample of the vital research being conducted there: “No, no, no, you need a carrot and a stick!”)

$700,000 added in conference for the Joranado Range Research Center in the state of Senate appropriator Pete Domenici (R-N.M.) and House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Joe Skeen (R-N.M.).

$606,000 added by the Senate for pest quarantine and integrated pest management in the state of Senate appropriator Conrad Burns (R-Mont.).

II. Commerce, Justice, State, and Judiciary

The Department of Commerce by itself is a grab bag of government agencies. Some of the various missions housed there include economic development, scientific research, technology development, and trade promotion. Put appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, State and the Judiciary together into one bill, and the result is a potpourri of pork. The FY 1998 bill rang in with $470.8 million worth of pork – just above the previous year’s total of $470.3 million. Here are some of the items Congress added to the budget request:

$5,000,000 added in conference for research on products, processes and technologies using underused natural resources and environmentally sound technologies at Montana State University in the state of Senate appropriator Conrad Burns (R-Mont.). (Taking advantage of underused resources – what a brilliant concept! What’s next, a government program for picking up the loose change behind seat cushions?)

$3,800,000 added by the Senate for development of a national resource center at Mount Washington in the state of Senate Commerce Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Judd Gregg (R-N.H.).

$1,800,000 added by the Senate and conference for four projects in the state of Senate Commerce Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C.), including $500,000 each for the Mount Pleasant and Charleston Police Departments for computer enhancements and equipment upgrades, and $300,000 for implementation of the Charleston Harbor project.

$1,250,000 added by the Senate for programs of the Oceanic Institute (OI) in Hawaii, the state of Senate appropriator Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii), including $750,000 for Hawaiian fisheries development and $500,000 for the Hawaii Stock Management Plan. A 1995 audit by USDA found that OI “did not comply with Federal regulations or with the terms of the grant agreements. OI used grant funds for purposes that were not specified in its grant budgets and that were not approved by ARS [Agricultural Research Service] or CSREES [Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service]. It also made unallowable procurements with related parties and did not always perform required cost analyses, document the bases for contractor selection, or justify the lack of competition when procuring goods and services.” In flagrant defiance of this report, Senator Inouye added $1,250,000 each year for OI in fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998.

$1,000,000 added by the Senate for the Gambling Impact Study Commission. (The final report should point out that gambling with the taxpayers’ money on Capitol Hill has put the nation $5.5 trillion in debt!)

III. Defense

Supporters of a strong national defense understand that wasting scarce defense dollars is the ultimate disservice to the United States. The ability to protect U.S. sovereignty and that of our allies is seriously threatened when Congress lards up the defense bill with useless and wasteful projects. Rather than exploiting the Department of Defense (DoD) as their personal automated teller machine, members of Congress need to ensure that all defense money is spent wisely. At least total defense pork decreased by $300 million, or 5 percent, from FY 1997.

$720,000,000 added by Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott (RMiss.) for an additional DDG-51 ship at the Ingalls Shipyard in Mississippi. Sen. Lott is unrepentant in his pork-barreling, stating “I’ll do anything for that [Ingalls] shipyard.” (That sure is a Lott of pork.)

$98,000,000 added by the Senate for a space-based laser. The Office of Management and Budget specifically opposed the addition of this funding. Not coincidentally, Mississippi is on the short list of locations to build this laser.

$30,400,000 added in conference for two CH-60 helicopters. Funding continues even though the Senate has explicitly said that the Navy has failed to justify its need for the program.

$26,400,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of prolific pork-barreler Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii): $8,000,000 for the Pacific Disaster Center; $7,000,000 for the Center of Excellence for Researching in Ocean Sciences; $5,400,000 for the small business development program; $5,000,000 for the Kauai test facility; and $1,000,000 for the eradication of Brown Tree snakes.

$25,000,000 added by the House for the Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The General Accounting Office has criticized the Predator for its lackluster performance. The vehicle suffered three significant failures during testing – one due to hostile fire in Bosnia, another due to engine failure, and the third due to unknown causes.

$15,000,000 for electric vehicle research. Since 1994, $121 million has been appropriated for such research. (Appropriators must have confused DoD with the Department of Transportation.)

$13,000,000 added by the Senate for Russian-American observational satellites.

$11,000,000 added by the Senate for the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP). Dubbed everything from a “mind control project” to a “mode of global military domination,” this boondoggle is a thicket of 180 antennas designed to study the ionosphere. Every year, Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska) finds it in his heart (and taxpayers’ wallets) to circumvent established budgetary procedures to fund HAARP.

$5,000,000 added by the Senate for the North Star Borough landfill in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska).

$5,000,000 added by the Senate for the Scorpius project by Senate Defense appropriations subcommittee member Richard Shelby (RAla.). In September 1997, Sen. Shelby bragged in a press release about how he added funding for this project, which has the goal of providing low-cost access to space. (Not off to a very good start, is it?)

$4,000,000 added by the Senate for the National Automotive Center. (This is enough to drive a taxpayer crazy.)

$3,000,000 added by the Senate for the Southern Observatory for Astronomical Research. The funds will support the construction of a state-of-the-art telescope high atop a mountain in South America to peer millions of years back in time.

$3,000,000 added in conference for the 21st Century National Security Study Group at the request of House Speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.) to do what is already being done at federal civilian and military agencies and countless other privately funded research institutes across the country; that is, to discern future national security concerns and the appropriate implementation strategies.

$100,000 added in conference for the preservation and protection of a Revolutionary War gunboat at the bottom of Lake Champlain (better known as the newest Great Lake), which straddles New York and Vermont.

IV. District of Columbia

The District of Columbia’s woes are well-known. From decapitated parking meters to indicted police officers, the last concern for D.C. is pork-barrel spending. A very close scouring of the D.C. appropriations bill uncovered only one project worthy of this year’s Pig Book:

$8,000,000 added by the Senate for the federal payment for city government management reform. (Now that’s irony!)

V. Energy and Water

Energy and Water appropriations pork was on the rise even before a balanced budget was proposed, so taxpayers should expect rough seas ahead during the feeding frenzy that is sure to take place as part of the countdown to the midterm elections. Watch for appropriators to use the FY 1999 bill as a way to buy votes for reelection. Army Corps of Engineers pork increased 119 percent from $120 million in FY 1997 to $263 million in FY 1998.

$10,100,000 added by the House for general construction at the Natomas American River watershed in the district of House Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Vic Fazio (D-Calif.). This construction will encourage new residential development behind levees, thereby increasing the flood risk to people and property.

$8,438,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska): $6,638,000 for general construction at St. Paul Harbor; $1,200,000 for general construction for Dillingham shoreline erosion; and $600,000 ($100,000 each) for general investigations at Valdez Harbor, Port Lions Harbor, Matanuska River, Kenai River, Douglas Harbor, and Ship Creek.

$7,650,000 added by the Senate and conference for projects in the state of Senate Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Pete Domenici (R-N.M.): $5,000,000 for Albuquerque wastewater recycling; $1,000,000 for operation and maintenance of the Upper Rio Grande water operations model; $500,000 for Santa Fe water reuse; $450,000 for the San Juan Gallup-Navajo pipeline; $400,000 for the Rio Grande conveyance canal/pipeline; and $300,000 for the Ute reservoir pipeline.

$4,350,000 added by the Senate and conference for projects in the state of Senate Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Harry Reid (D-Nev.): $3,750,000 for a Las Vegas shallow aquifer desalination demonstration and $600,000 for general investigation at Truckee Meadows.

$1,500,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Robert Bennett (R-Utah): $1,000,000 for general construction at Little Dell Lake and $500,000 for Tooele wastewater treatment and reuse.

$1,500,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Byron Dorgan (D-N.D.): $750,000 for operation and maintenance of the Missouri River Betion Ft. Peck and Mt. Gavins Dam and $750,000 for operation and maintenance of South Dakota and North Dakota section 33.

$900,000 added in conference for general construction at the Louisiana State Penitentiary in the state of House Appropriations Committee Chairman Robert Livingston (R-La.)

$500,000 added in conference for operation and maintenance of an Army Corps of Engineers project in Marina Del Rey in the district of Rep. Jane Harman (D-Calif.).

$365,000 added by the Senate and conference for projects in the state of Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle (D-S.D.): $185,000 for the Crow Creek rural water supply system; $100,000 for the James River; and $80,000 for the Cheyenne River Sioux reservation.

$225,000 added by the House for general construction in Williamsport in the district of House Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Joseph McDade (R-Pa.).

$140,000 added in conference for projects in the district of Representative Dana Rohrabacher (R-Calif.): $100,000 for general investigation in the city of Huntington Beach and $40,000 for general investigation of the Bolsa Chica channel.

$100,000 added in conference for general investigation at Lake Worth Inlet in the district of Representative E. Clay Shaw (R-Fla.).

Other Energy pork includes:

$3,900,000 added in conference for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska): $2,000,000 for the Power Creek hydroelectric project in Cordova; $1,000,000 for the Upper Lyn canal regional electric project in Scagway; $800,000 for the Old Harbor hydroelectric project; and $100,000 for hydroelectric facilities completion in the village of Scammon Bay.

$3,000,000 added by the Senate for the Russian-American fuel cell consortium.

$750,000 added by House Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Vic Fazio (D-Calif.) for the Gridley rice straw project. This project, which was designed to convert rice into ethanol, has experienced serious contract management problems since it began in 1995. The search for a new company to fulfill the contract will lead to further delays and cost overruns.

VI. Foreign Operations

The Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill does not usually contain as much pork as other appropriations bills. Nevertheless, some of the items targeted for funding by this bill are surprisingly parochial. While total pork increased five-fold (from $32.6 million in FY 1997 to $202.9 million in FY 1998), the most egregious projects remained familiar. Each of the following nonrequested projects has a porkbarrel pedigree:

$19,600,000 added by the House for the International Fund for Ireland (IFI). Started as a going-away gift for former House Speaker Thomas P. “Tip” O’Neill, the IFI tries to aid the peace process by funding golf videos, pony trekking centers, and sweater exports. The Senate initially declined to request funds for IFI, noting that it still had $40,000,000 available from previous years that had not yet been obligated to any projects or activities. The IFI has been included in six out of seven Pig Books.

$3,000,000 added for the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), headquartered in the state of Senate Foreign Operations Appropriations subcommittee member Richard C. Shelby (R-Ala.). The IFDC was featured in the 1997 Pig Book. (This program duplicates the output of many government agencies.)

$750,000 added by the House for the Neotropical Migratory Bird Initiative of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. This project was included in the 1995 and 1996 Pig Books.

$500,000 added by the Senate for the United States Telecommunications Training Institute. This handout to the telecommunications industry was included in the 1996 and 1997 Pig Books.

VII. Interior

Appropriators again turned the National Park Service into the National Pork Service, adding 72 nonrequested items to that agency’s budget. The Bureau of Land Management, the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service were also frequent conduits of pork. The FY 1998 Interior Appropriations Bill contained $355 million worth of pork, up 54 percent from $230 million the previous year. Here are some of the items not requested by the President:

$15,581,000 added by the Senate and conference for 16 projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member and Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $4,200,000 for land acquisition at the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve; $2,200,000 for construction at the Alaska Native Heritage Center; $500,000 for the Alaska Spruce Bark Beetle Task Force; $400,000 for headquarters and interpretive center construction at Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve; $100,000 for the Alaska Gold Rush Centennial Task Force; $100,000 for the Alaska gold rush centennial exhibits and living history presentations; and $100,000 for the Aleutian World War II National Historic Area.

$9,860,000 added by the Senate and conference for five projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Thad Cochran (R-Miss.), including: $5,100,000 for road construction along the Natchez Trace Parkway; and $1,695,000 for rehabilitation, plus $1,000,000 for an interpretive center, both at Vicksburg National Military Park.

$9,225,000 added by the Senate for five projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations Subcommittee and Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va.), including: $3,000,000 for land acquisition at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge; and $2,525,000 for construction of trails and access, plus $2,000,000 for land acquisition, both at New River Gorge National River.

$9,150,000 added by the Senate for six projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M.), including $3,000,000 for an arts center at the Hispanic Cultural Center and $2,000,000 for land acquisition at Petroglyph National Monument.

$6,398,000 added by the Senate for six projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Slade Gorton (R-Wash.), including: $2,223,000 for construction at the Vancouver National Historical Reserve; $840,000 for trail construction at the Steigerwald National Wildlife Refuge; and $750,000 for Washington Salmon Enhancement.

$5,360,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C.): $2,860,000 for site development at Fort Sumter National Monument; $2,000,000 for land acquisition at Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge; and $500,000 to rehabilitate the Penn Center.

$5,170,000 added by the House for five projects in the district of House appropriator Joseph M. McDade (R-Pa.), including $3,500,000 for education facilities and trail development at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area and $800,000 for the Partners for Wildlife program on soil erosion in Bradford County.

$5,166,000 added by the Senate for five projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Dale Bumpers (D-Ark.), including $3,400,000 for Fort Smith National Historic Site rehabilitation and $1,266,000 for land acquisitions at Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas Post National Monument, and Ozark National Forest.

$3,752,000 added by the House for construction at Carlsbad Caverns National Park in the district of House Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Joe Skeen (R-N.M.). $3,000,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Barbara Boxer (DCalif.), including $2,000,000 for the acquisition of Bair Island at Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge and $1,000,000 for Salton Sea recovery planning and bioremediation efforts.

$2,245,000 added by the House for access and parking construction projects at Fort Necessity National Battlefield in the district of House Interior Appropriations subcommittee member John P. Murtha (D-Pa.). (Maybe they should just rename it “Fort Non-Necessity.”)

$2,225,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Conrad Burns (RMont.): $1,925,000 for redevelopment of a fire operations center in Billings and $300,000 for whirling disease research at Montana State University.

$1,910,000 added by the Senate for five projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Robert Bennett (R-Utah), including $510,000 for construction of a facility at Timpanagos Cave National Monument and $200,000 for the Virgin River Basin Recovery Plan.

$1,750,000 added by the House for land acquisitions in the district of House appropriator Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-N.J.): $1,000,000 for Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge and $750,000 for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge.

$1,000,000 added by the Senate for rehabilitation of the John Hay Estate in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Judd Gregg (R-N.H.).

$800,000 added by the House for projects in the district of House appropriator Steny Hoyer: $600,000 for restoration of Sotterly Plantation and $200,000 for construction of facilities at the Accokeek Foundation.

$700,000 added by the House for Forest Service construction in the district of House Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Zach Wamp (R-Tenn.): $500,000 for Chilowee campground and $200,000 for the Upper Ocoee corridor.

$200,000 added by the Senate for Don Henley’s Caddo Lake Institute for its scholars program in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colo.).

VIII. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education

Porking up the Labor/HHS/Education Appropriations Bill does not create jobs, move people off of the welfare rolls, or educate anyone. The only goal achieved is the waste of scarce tax dollars. A handful of House members tried to stop the funding of many of these pork items. Though they were not completely successful, they did have some impact: Total Labor/HHS/Education pork is down an amazing 68 percent, from $2.1 billion in FY 1997 to $690 million for FY 1998.

The following projects were awarded noncompetitively and earmarked by the Senate without budget requests through the Institute of Museum and Library Sciences:

$4,000,000 for projects to “use the resources of libraries and children’s museums to provide innovative learning opportunities for at-risk children.” The conference notes “urge” that the Children’s Museums in Baltimore, Md.; Boston, Mass.; and Philadelphia, Pa., receive the funding.

$1,930,000 for projects in the state of Senate Labor/HHS/ Education Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Arlen Specter (R-Pa.): $1,130,000 to maintain and interpret a historical collection of notes at the medical library of College of Physicians in Philadelphia and $800,000 for a “one-of-a-kind historical library in Pennsylvania’s anthracite coal region to assist in the cataloguing and historic preservation of detailed information regarding miners’ compensation and occupational records, geological studies, maps, newspaper clips and more than 8,000 photographs.”

$1,000,000 for a demonstration project to “provide interactive communications via the Internet to the information resources available between universities and their satellite campuses, community colleges and public, school and special libraries, and other entities” in the state of Senate appropriator Conrad Burns (RMont.). The Senate report language “urges” that the money be sent to the Montana information consortium, which includes the University of Montana and Montana State University.

$1,000,000 to digitize the card catalog for the New York Public Library.

Other Labor/HHS/Education pork added without budget requests includes:

$24,798,000 added by the House for Health Professions’ Centers of Excellence. (The Centers of Mediocrity received no funding this year.)

$3,798,000 added by the House for general dentistry residencies. (Maybe they’re looking for a way to put some bite into the lineitem veto.)

$1,000,000 added by the Senate for the “establishment of a center to provide in-state laboratory testing for businesses and training for high school graduates in the use of scientific testing equipment and techniques” in the state of Senate Labor/HHS/Education Appropriations subcommittee member James Jeffords (R-Vt.).

$1,000,000 added by the Senate for “a project similar to the ACCESS program at Prairie View A&M University” in the state of Senate Labor/HHS/Education Appropriations subcommittee member Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Texas).

$500,000 added by the Senate for the University of Hawaii Center on the Family in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (DHawaii).

$500,000 added in conference for the National Health Museum. The initial appropriation is for the establishment of a commission appointed by the President and House and Senate leadership to study the museum proposal and develop a master plan. Taxpayers managed to escape the President’s government-run healthcare plan – now they need to pull the plug on Congress’ governmentrun health museum.

IX. Legislative Branch

Mindful appropriators ensured that the Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill was pork-free in FY 1998. Even though this appropriation is not a large one, it sets an example for all appropriators to follow.

X. Military Construction

Military Construction pork dropped slightly in FY 1998, to $921 million from $930 million the previous year. Of that $921 million, $287 million worth of nonrequested items were vetoed by the President. Unfortunately, Congress overrode those vetoes in February. Here are some of the items Congress added to the budget request:

$32,450,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Military Construction Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Conrad Burns (R-Mont.), including $14,950,000 for an armed forces reserve center in Billings and $13,000,000 for family housing at Malmstrom Air Force Base.

$28,950,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Slade Gorton (R-Wash.) and Senate Military Construction Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Patty Murray (D-Wash.): $16,000,000 for family housing at Whidbey Island Naval Air Station; and $8,200,000 for an education center and library, plus $4,750,000 for additions and alterations to a fire station, both at Fairchild Air Force Base.

$22,250,000 added by the House for projects in the district of House appropriator Ed Pastor (D-Ariz.): $12,250,000 for bachelor enlisted quarters at Yuma Marine Corps Air Station and $10,000,000 for purchase of the Goldwater Range near Luke Air Force Base.

$22,132,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Military Construction Appropriations subcommittee member Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii), including $7,400,000 for an advanced seal delivery system facility at Pearl Harbor Naval Station and $5,232,000 for additions and alterations to an administrative training facility at Bellows Air Force Base.

$20,600,000 added by the House for projects at Camp Pendelton Marine Corps Base in the district of House Military Construction Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Ron Packard (R-Calif.): $16,120,000 for bachelor enlisted quarters and $4,480,000 for a child development center.

$17,800,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Richard C. Shelby (R-Ala.): $13,000,000 for a missile readiness software annex and $4,800,000 for a munitions complex/aircraft support shop at Dannelly Field.

$16,700,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Steven (R-Alaska): $6,100,000 for an electrical systems upgrade at Elmendorf Air Force Base; $6,000,000 for a potable water storage upgrade at Eilson Air Force Base; and $4,600,000 for an Army National Guard aviation operations facility in Bethel.

$14,325,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Thad Cochran (R-Miss.): $9,900,000 for an operation and maintenance facility at the Mississippi Army Ammunition Plant and $4,425,000 for an Army National Guard readiness center in Senatobia.

$11,500,000 added by the House for barracks renewal at Fort Stewart’s Hunter Army Air Field in the district of House Military Construction Appropriations subcommittee member Jack Kingston (R-Ga.).

$10,000,000 added by the House for an ammunition demilitarization support facility at Pine Bluff in the district of House appropriator Jay Dickey (R-Ark.).

$9,500,000 added by the House for the upgrading of KC-135 flightline facilities at Fairchild Air Force Base in the district of House appropriator George Nethercutt, Jr. (R-Wash.).

$8,600,000 added by the House for a child development center at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in the district of House Military Construction Appropriations subcommittee member David Hobson (R-Ohio).

$8,000,000 added by the House for family housing at Fort Huachuca in the district of House appropriator Jim Kolbe (RAriz.).

$7,581,000 added by the House for projects at McConnell Air Force Base in the district of House Military Construction Appropriations subcommittee member Todd Tiahrt (R-Kan.): $5,000,000 for additions and alterations to a child development center; $2,000,000 for alterations to a base maintenance shop; and $581,000 for a family housing management office.

$7,300,000 added by the House for family housing at Picatinny Arsenal in the district of House appropriator Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-N.J.).

XI. Transportation

Nothing says pork like transportation. Every year, in a thinly veiled attempt to buy votes and power, Congress loads up the Transportation Appropriations Bill with unnecessary transportation projects. Transportation pork is up 20 percent from FY 1997, and this year’s favorite means for abuse is the bus and bus-related facilities program. Department of Transportation officials have told CAGW that they are constantly frustrated by Congress’ mad dash to earmark these funds. But committee members apparently believe that the horse trading that goes on in conference is their privilege. In FY 1998, 65 percent of all statespecific pork was confiscated by 5.4 percent of the members of Congress – the 29 senators and representatives on the Transportation Appropriations Subcommittee. Those are some pretty fancy horses they’re trading, but it’s a closed auction with the taxpayers picking up the tab.

$22,200,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Richard Shelby (R-Ala.): $6,000,000 for phase II of the Birmingham downtown intermodal transportation facility; $5,000,000 for phase I of the Huntsville intermodal center; $3,000,000 for Birmingham and Jefferson County buses; $2,200,000 for traffic integration and flow control; $1,500,000 for Mobile bus replacement; $1,500,000 for Montgomery bus replacement; $1,000,000 for Tuscaloosa bus replacement; $1,000,000 for the Mobile municipal pier intermodal waterfront access rehabilitation project; and $1,000,000 for the Mobile southern market historic intermodal center.

$17,500,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Christopher Bond (R-Mo.): $8,000,000 for state buses and bus facilities; $4,500,000 for the Kansas City Union Station intermodal center; $3,500,000 for the Kansas City buses and fare box collection system; $1,000,000 for Kansas City intermodal common communications technology; and $500,000 for the Springfield to Branson commuter rail project.

$17,250,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert Byrd (DW. Va.): $9,250,000 for statewide buses and bus facilities and $8,000,000 for Barboursville/Ona traffic management.

$14,400,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Robert Bennett (R-Utah): $4,000,000 for Salt Lake City commuter rail; $3,500,000 for Utah intelligent transportation systems; $2,500,000 for Utah Transit Authority Olympic intermodal transportation centers; $2,000,000 for Utah Transit Authority bus acquisition; $2,000,000 for Utah Transit Authority Olympic park and ride lots; and $400,000 for Park City Transit buses.

$13,500,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriation subcommittee members Slade Gorton (R-Wash.) and Patty Murray (D-Wash.): $5,000,000 for King County park and ride lots; $1,500,000 for the Kasch park community transit facility; $1,500,000 for Whatcom Transportation Authority facilities; $1,500,000 for King County metro commuter intermodal connector; $1,250,000 for a statewide roadway weather information system; $1,000,000 for the Chelan/Douglas multimodal center; $1,000,000 for the Olympic Peninsula International Gateway Transportation Center; and $750,000 for state communication emergency call boxes.

$12,750,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Arlen Specter (R-Pa.): $6,000,000 for the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission intelligent transportation system; $4,000,000 for statewide buses and bus facilities projects; $1,500,000 for the Wilkes-Barre intermodal facility; $1,000,000 for the Philadelphia Eastwick intermodal center; and $250,000 for the Urban Transportation Safety Systems Center in Philadelphia.

$7,750,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Pete Domenici (R-N.M.): $3,750,000 for statewide buses and bus facilities; $1,000,000 for Las Cruces, Santa Fe, and Albuquerque park and ride; $1,000,000 for demonstration of universal electric transportation subsystems; $1,000,000 for the Albuquerque uptown transit center; and $1,000,000 for an intermodal technology demonstration project.

$5,500,000 added by the House for the Mobile intermodal facility in the district of House Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Sonny Callahan (R-Ala.).

$1,575,000 added by the House for projects in the district of House Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member John Olver (D-Mass.): $875,000 for the Franklin County traveler information system; and $700,000 for Greenfield Montague Transportation Area buses.

$1,550,000 added by the House for the Cumberland Gap Tunnel in the district of House Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Harold Rogers (R-Ky.).

$100,000 added in conference for Gadsen, Alabama, buses and vans in the district of House Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Robert Aderholdt (R-Ala.).

XII. Treasury and Postal Service

The FY 1998 Treasury/Postal Service/General Government Appropriations Bill contained only $16.5 million worth of pork, compared to the previous year’s pork total of $350.8 million. The main reason for this 95 percent drop was the absence of any lineitems in the Federal Buildings Fund, which tallied $259 million in pork in FY 1997. Because the revenue coming into the Federal Buildings Fund was less than anticipated, Congress and the General Services Administration have deferred new construction for one year. But $16.5 million in pork is exactly $16.5 million too much. Here are some of the items Congress added to the budget:

$10,000,000 added for establishment of three new High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) programs: $6,000,000 for Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia; $3,000,000 for Milwaukee, in the state of Senate Treasury/Postal Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Herb Kohl (D-Wis.); and $1,000,000 for central Florida. That makes eight unrequested HIDTAs since last year, bringing the percentage of the U.S. population living in HIDTAs to 25 percent. At this rate, the entire country will be designated an HIDTA within the next decade.

$2,000,000 added by the House for digital learning technologies for the 21st Century Distributed Learning Environment in Education program.

$1,250,000 added by the Senate for the Global Trade and Research Program at the Montana World Trade Center in the state of Senate appropriator Conrad Burns (R-Mont.). (This project is soon to be followed by construction of the Montana United Nations.)

$1,000,000 added in conference for a digital medical education project.

$250,000 added by the House for production of a firearms and ammunition guide by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

XIII. Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development

The FY 1998 VA/HUD/Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill was a major conduit of pork, containing 305 items without budget requests. The pork totaled $683 million – more than twice as much as the FY 1997 VA/HUD pork total of $336 million.

One reason for this major increase was HUD’s new Economic Development Initiative (EDI). The House granted the President’s request of $50 million, noting that it expected HUD to focus EDI “on creating employment opportunities for former welfare recipients that live in distressed and blighted neighborhoods.” The Senate approved $40 million, but earmarked $31.9 million for pet projects such as cultural, arts, and science centers, theaters and a college library. In conference, House appropriators suddenly added their own grants, and the total appropriations for EDI ballooned to $137 million, of which $97 million was earmarked for 121 specific projects. Congress also larded pork into several EPA accounts, especially wastewater grants.

Pennsylvania alone received 35 nonrequested projects worth $49.5 million from Sen. Arlen Specter (R), Reps. Joseph McDade (R) and John Murtha (D), and then-Rep. Thomas M. Foglietta (D). Pork sent to the Keystone state included:

$11,900,000 added by the House for projects in the district of Rep. McDade: $4,000,000 for a wastewater grant to Lycoming County; $4,000,000 for the National Institute of Environmental Renewal to start a monitoring system for watersheds near the Chesapeake Bay; $1,500,000 each for wastewater grants to Smithfield Township and the Pocono/Jackson Township Joint Authority; and $900,000 for environmental restoration at Lake Wallenpaupack.

$4,500,000 added by the House for wastewater grants to 12 local counties, townships, and small cities in the district of Rep. Bud Shuster (R).

$3,450,000 added in conference for eight EDI projects in Pennsylvania, including: $1,500,000 for the Southeast Pennsylvania Consortium for Higher Education to do public policy research; $1,000,000 for the Pennsylvania Education and Telecommunications Exchange Network; $700,000 for an aquatic and fitness center in Lehigh Valley; and $200,000 for various park development projects.

$1,300,000 added in conference for EDI projects in the district of Rep. Murtha: $550,000 for library renovations in Indiana; $400,000 for renovation of a theater by the Eureka Coal Heritage Foundation, Inc., of Windber; $200,000 for construction of a pedestrian bridge in Barnesboro Borough; and $150,000 for “Friends of George C. Marshall” to develop the George C. Marshall Memorial Plaza in Uniontown.

The chairmen of the Senate and House subcommittees on VA/HUD appropriations, Sen. Christopher “Kit” S. Bond (R-Mo.) and Rep. Jerry Lewis (R-Calif.), were also very adept at handing out other people’s money last year. Sen. Bond sent 15 nonrequested projects totaling $14,850,000 back to Missouri, and Rep. Lewis sent 11 nonrequested projects totaling $14,800,000 back home to San Bernadino and Inyo counties.

Pork in Sen. Bond’s state of Missouri included:

$2,500,000 added by the Senate for a plant genetics research unit and the Delta Research Telecommunications Resource Center at the University of Missouri.

$2,000,000 added by the Senate for the University of Missouri’s Agroforestry Center to support the agroforestry floodplain initiative.

$1,000,000 added in conference for community development activities at LeClede Town in St. Louis.

$50,000 added in conference for the City of Wellston to revitalize its city hall.

Pork projects in Rep. Lewis’s district included:

$3,000,000 added in conference for redevelopment of the Fifth Street Bridge in Highland. $2,000,000 added by the House for an environmental education center in Highland.

$1,500,000 added in conference for academic and infrastructure needs at the Apple Valley Science and Technology Center.

$250,000 added in conference for the County of Inyo to plan and design the Lower Owens River project.

Other egregious examples of nonrequested projects included:

$26,300,000 added by the House for an ambulatory care addition at the Asheville VA Medical Center in the district of House appropriator Charles H. Taylor (R-N.C.).

$26,000,000 added by the House for environmental improvements at the Waco VA Medical Center in the district of House appropriator Chet Edwards (D-Texas).

$16,900,000 added by the House and conference for six projects in the district of House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member James T. Walsh (R-N.Y.), including $14,000,000 for water improvements at Onondaga Lake and $1,000,000 for the water quality management plan for Skaneatles, Otisco and Owasco Lake watersheds.

$12,000,000 added by the House and conference for six projects in the district of House appropriator Harold Rogers (R-Ky.), including: $3,000,000 for water needs in Williamsburg; $2,000,000 each for the Burnside and Morgan County Water District for water needs; and $2,000,000 for the Kentucky Highland Investment Corporation in London to assist businesses.

$9,750,000 added by the Senate and conference for 13 projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.), including: $2,000,000 for economic revitalization in the city of Compton; $1,000,000 for the Discovery Science Center in Santa Ana; $1,000,000 for a wetlands potable water reuse program for the city of West Palm Beach; and $500,000 for a training program in international commerce, environmental management and business ethics at the University of San Francisco’s Center for International Business Education.

$9,550,000 added by the Senate and conference for six projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Barbara A. Mikulski (D-Md.), including: $2,300,000 for wastewater improvements in Queen Anne’s County; $2,000,000 for the state of Maryland to revitalize toxic waste sites; $2,000,000 for biological nutrient removal on the Pocomoke River; and $1,500,000 for establishment of a National Center for Environmental Toxicology and Epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University.

$9,000,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Robert Bennett (R-Utah): $7,000,000 for a wastewater grant to the Ashley Valley Sewer Management Board and $2,000,000 for economic redevelopment in Ogden.

$8,750,000 added by the Senate and conference for six projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $3,000,000 for a leaking fuel tank demonstration project; $2,500,000 for a science learning center in Kenai; $1,500,000 for training facilities and equipment for Alaska One; and $1,000,000 for Covenant House in Anchorage.

$8,550,000 added by the Senate and conference for projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Tom Harkin (D-Iowa): $7,000,000 for wastewater and sanitary system improvements in Burlington; $1,350,000 for a distance learning center for community outreach and development at Buena Vista University; and $200,000 for cleanup of Five Island Lake.

$7,350,000 added by the Senate and conference for six projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Patrick J. Leahy (D-Vt.), including: $3,000,000 for a wastewater treatment plant project in Milton; $1,500,000 for the Lake Champlain management plan; $1,350,000 for renovation of the Paramount Theater in Rutland; $900,000 for the Lake Champlain Science Center in Burlington; and $250,000 for the Vermont Science Center in St. Albans.

$6,950,000 added by the Senate for five water improvement projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Larry E. Craig, (R- Idaho), including: $3,000,000 for Bingham County; $2,000,000 for the city of Rupert; and $1,000,000 for the Rosewell and Homedale areas.

$6,300,000 added by the Senate for five projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Richard Shelby (R-Ala.), including: $2,000,000 for water system improvement in Washington County; $2,000,000 for the Cleveland Avenue YMCA in Montgomery to build a cultural arts center; and $1,000,000 for the University of South Alabama to establish the Center for Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Environmental Research.

$5,400,000 added by the Senate and conference for two projects in the state of Senate appropriator Conrad Burns (R-Mont.), including $5,000,000 for sewer system improvements in Missoula.

$4,600,000 added by the Senate and conference for four projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Frank R. Lautenberg (D-N.J.), including $2,000,000 for development of abandoned industrial sites in the city of Perth Amboy and $1,250,000 for the Stevens Institute of Business Technology to build a Laboratory of Business Innovation.

$4,500,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M.): $2,500,000 for the New Mexico Hispanic Cultural Center and $2,000,000 for the Lovelace Respiratory Institute to establish a National Environmental Respiratory Center.

$4,400,000 added in conference for two projects in the district of House appropriator Ed Pastor (D-Ariz.), including $4,000,000 for a new columbarium at the National Memorial Cemetery of Arizona.

$4,200,000 added by the Senate and conference for three projects in the state of Senate appropriators Slade Gorton (R-Wash.) and Patty Murray (D-Wash.), including $2,500,000 for the King County molten carbonate fuel cell demonstration project at the Renton wastewater treatment plant and $1,200,000 for expansion and refurbishment of the Pacific Science Center in Seattle.

$3,450,000 added by the Senate and conference for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Lauch Faircloth (R-N.C.): $2,500,000 for exhibit and program development at Discovery Place in Charlotte and $950,000 for construction of a facility at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke’s Regional Center for Economic, Community, and Professional Development.

$3,250,000 added by the Senate and conference for five projects in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii), including: $1,250,000 for design of a granular activated carbon water treatment project; $600,000 for the West Maui Community Resource Center; $500,000 for the Ala Wai Canal watershed project; and $400,000 for the Maui algal bloom project.

$3,220,000 added by the Senate for enlarging and updating the Scarborough Library at Shepherd College in Shepherdstown in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va.).

$2,300,000 added in conference for five EDI projects in the district of House VA/HUD Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Louis Stokes (D-Ohio).

$2,000,000 added by the Senate for renovation of the Albright- Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York.

$1,500,000 added in conference for the Geyserville Visitors Center for an intermodal transportation center in the district of House appropriator Frank Riggs (R-Calif.).

$1,400,000 added in conference for revitalization and community service centers in Toledo in the district of House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio).

$1,400,000 added in conference for four EDI grants in the district of House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Alan B. Mollohan (D-W.Va.), including $600,000 for the city of Grafton and $450,000 for the city of Parkersburg.

$1,000,000 added in conference for a multimodal transit center in Jackson in the state of Senate appropriator Thad Cochran (RMiss.) and the district of House appropriator Mike Parker (RMiss.).

$950,000 added in conference for completion of the Turtle Mountain Economic Development and Education Complex at Turtle Mountain Community College in the state of Senate appropriator Byron L. Dorgan (D-N.D.).

$900,000 for the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois, to restore a U505 submarine.

$700,000 added in conference for two EDI projects in the district of House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member David Hobson (R-Ohio), including $500,000 for the Clark County Heritage Center in Springfield to develop the Old Marketplace.

Historical Trends

SpendingEarmarks