1995 Congressional Pig Book | Council For Citizens Against Government Waste

1995 Congressional Pig Book

Choose Year:  

1995

Summary

The Congressional Pig Book is CAGW's annual compilation of the pork-barrel projects in the federal budget. To qualify as pork, a project must meet one of seven criteria that were developed in 1991 by CAGW and the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition.

Introduction

“The more things change, the more they stay the same.” Nowhere will the truth of this pessimistic old saw be more solely tested than when the “reformist” 104th Congress gets down to the work of appropriating money. That’s when Washington’s temptation is greatest, when even the most frugal sounding member suddenly begins searching for ways to rationalize his or her personal raid on the U.S. Treasury.

At a time when dramatic changes are said to be reworking the political landscape, one key indicator (“let’s call it the “Bacon Barometer”) of whether Washington’s wasteful ways are truly changing—of whether the reforms of which we hear so much are real—is CAGW’s 1995 Congressional Pig Book Summary.

Does the “new regime” mean an end to this mindless raid on the U.S. Treasury and assault on the pocketbooks of average taxpayers, or represent just another round of musical chairs at the federal trough? CAGW’s fifth annual Pig Book allows taxpayers to be the judges. While the pork-barrel projects included here weren’t conceived during the 104th Congress, the new Congress does have the power to stop them all.

President Clinton and members of the 104th Congress should de-fund these illgotten appropriations by any means necessary, including rescissions, de-authorization, and the line-item veto, sending a convincing signal to the public that pork-barrel politics as usual will no longer be tolerated. The political fallout disgruntled porkers in the short run will be far outweighed by the goodwill and gratitude of taxpayers.

Sneaking a pinch from the U.S. Treasury for the folks back home—also known as pork-barreling spending—has long been one of Washington’s more unseemly tradition, transacted with wink and a nod, behind closed doors, by stubborn remnants of the “old boy” network. Even in these tight fiscal times, pork continues to serve as the currency of power in a town where the ability to “bring home the bacon” remains an enduring measure of status.

Broadly speaking, pork is spending in circumvention of established budgetary procedures, or the use of federal money for projects of only local interest. It can assume any number of forms: military pork, academic pork, farm pork, park pork, and even court pork—one of the more recent trends sweeping Congress. But any way you cut it, it adds up to a raw deal for taxpayers.

A pinch of pork here and a pinch there, and soon we’re talking about real money, even by Washington standards. The 88 projects profiled here will cost taxpayers more than $1 billion, but amount to only a fraction of the more than $10 billion in pork found hidden away in the 13 fiscal year (FY) 1995 appropriations bills. All meet one or more of the following criteria:

  • Requested by only one chamber of Congress;
  • Not specifically authorized;
  • Not competitively awarded;
  • Not requested by the President;
  • Greatly exceeds the President’s budget request or the previous year’s funding;
  • Not the subject of congressional hearings; or
  • Serves only a local or special interest.

I. Agriculture

$535,000 added in conference for herd management research. Since 1991, $1,901,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$93,000 added in conference for the National Potato trade and Tariff Association. (Everything you always wanted to know about taxes and tubers.)

Even though the following programs were not requested by the president or specifically authorized, Congress appropriated money for them in FY 1995:

$3,758,000 for wood utilization research (ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, OR). Since 1985, $31,257,000 has been appropriated for such research, which is now planned to continue through 1998. (By then, they’ll discover the toothpick.) When this project reached conference, more money was appropriated than was requested by either House or Senate.

$455,000 for Russian Wheat Aphid (CA, CO, ID,OR, WA). Since 1989, $2,175,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$296,000 for Fruit and Vegetable Market Analysis (AZ and MO). Since 1994, $329,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$294,000 for regionalized implication of farm programs (MO and TX). Since 1990, a total of $1,717,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$119,000 for swine research at the university of Minnesota. Since 1992, $412,000 has been appropriated for such research. (Reports that researchers from the university have established an observation post on Capitol Hill could not be confirmed.)

The following programs were requested by only one chamber of Congress:

$8,783,000 added by the Senate in the state of Senate Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Dale Bumpers (D-AR). Projects include: $4,752,000 for the Rice Germplasm Center in Stuttgart; $1,184,000 for Alternative Pest Control Center at the university of Arkansas; $946,000 for Alternative Pest Control; $624,000 for increased staffing at Fayetteville ($250,000), Stuttgart ($187,000), Booneville ($125,000), and pine Bluff ($62,000); $523,000 for forestry research; $462,000 for the National Center for Agricultural Law Research at the Leflar School of Law; $200,000 for beef producers improvement; and $92,000 for Global Marketing Support Service. (A windfall which gives new meaning to the term “Bumpers” crop.”)

$3,071,000 added by the Senate in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D0WV). Projects include: $1,921,000 for the National Center for Cold Water Aquaculture; $950,000 for the Appalachian soil and water conversation laboratory; and $200,000 for the Appalachian fruit research laboratory.

$2,600,000 added by the Senate for the Institute for Agriculture and Rural Health Research at the Minot State university in the state of Senate Agriculture Committee member Kent Conrad (D-ND).

$644,000 added by the Senate for seafood research in the state of Senate Appropriations Chairman Mark Hatfield (R-OR). Since 1993, $633,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$229,000 added by the House for the Ohio and Lake Erie Soil and Water Research and Education Center in the district of House appropriator Marcy Kaptur (D-OH).

$220,000 added by the Senate for lowbush blueberry research at the university of Maine in the state of former Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell (D-ME). Since 1990, $950,000 has been appropriated for such research, which may be completed in 1995.

II. Commerce, Justice, and State

$24,500,000 for projects in the state of Senate Subcommittee Ranking Member Ernest Hollings (D-SC): $15,000,000 for Federal Correctional Complex security upgrade in Edgefield; $7,500,000 to initiate the expansiono of the National Marine Fisheries Services Southeastern Laboratory; $1,000,000 for the Charleston special area management plan; and $1,000,000 for the Cooperative Geodatic Survey. (Which shows “The Importance of Being Ernest.”)

$20,300,000 added by the Senate for Next Generation Radar construction. The Department of Commerce (DOC) Inspector General, in the September 30, 1994 Semiannual report, was highly critical of the amount of money being spent on spare parts: “Our audit disclosed that the prices proposed under the contract modifications were unreasonable. We recommend price reductions totaling more than $17.6 million.” (To boldly spend where no one has spent before.)

$11,000,000 added by the Senate for the Estuarine Habitats Research Laboratory in Lafayette, Louisiana, in the state of Senate Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member J. Bennett Johnston (D-LA).

$6,200,000 added in conference for projects in the state of House appropriators Joseph McDade (R-PA) and John Murtha (D-PA), both dropouts of the Porkers Anonymous 12- step program: $2,500,000 for a grants to the city of Carbondale; $1,200,000 for the Center for Global Competitiveness in Loretto and Latrobe; $1,000,000 for a grant to the Small Business Development Institute in North Philadelphia, $1,000,000 for the Center for Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Greensburg; and $500,000 for the Van Emmons Population Marketing Analysis Center.

$6,000,000 added in conference for the high performance computing capability at the Patent and Trademark Office.

$5,200,000 added in conference for construction of the Indiana Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Education at Indiana State University, the alma mater of House appropriator John Myers (R-IN). According to DOC sources, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) budget documents say that this is a directed, non-competitive grant which circumvents federal grant procedures, and NOAA is not authorized by law to fund the construction. DOC sources also claim that this will not be a NOAA facility, nor will it have any direct NOAA-related mission. (Perhaps now they can afford to teach Fiscal Responsibility 101).

$3,400,00 added in conference for the Textile Clothing Technology Corporation through the International Trade Administration (ITA).

$3,375,000 added in conference for projects in the state of House Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Harold Rogers (R-KY): $1,250,000 to the city of Whitesburg; $1,000,000 for a small business consulting, information, and assistance center in Hazard; $1,000,000 to the city of Prestonburg for small business development; and $125,000 to an organization in Bowling Green for a small business pilot program.

$2,600,000 added by the Senate for the Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport, Oregon, in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark Hatfield (ROR).

$1,700,000 added in conference for the Massachusetts Biotechnology Research Institute (MBRI) through the ITA in Worcester, Massachusetts, sponsored by Rep. Joe Moakley (D-MA) and Sen. Edward Kennedy (D-MA). DOC sources questioned several proposed expenses taken out of the ITA grant such as full salaries of the MBRI staff, costs for the annual report and advertising, certain international travel, a new copier, filing cabinets and shelving.

$1,000,000 added in conference for the construction of the Mystic Seaport Maritime Education Center in Mystic, Connecticut, sponsored by Sen. Joseph Lieberman (D-CT). According to DOC sources, NOAA budget documents say that this is a directed, noncompetitive grant which circumvents federal grant procedures, and NOAA is not authorized by law to fund the construction.

$750,000 added by the Senate for Hawaiian Fisheries Development in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-HI). According to DOC sources, this is a “directed, noncompetitive grant which circumvents federal grant procedures, and NOAA questions the Institute’s financial condition and ability to administer grants, and the project’s relationship to the NOAA mission.” The House wasn’t as diplomatic: “The House bill eliminates or reduces below current levels almost all programs located in the State of Hawaii.”

$500,000 added by the Senate for the Hawaii stock management plan in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-HI). According to DOC sources, this is a directed, non-competitive grant which circumvents federal grant procedures, and NOAA questions the Institute’s financial condition and ability to administer grants, and the project’s relationship to the NOAA mission.

III. Defense

$75,000,000 added in conference for Navy Upper Tier sea-based missile research and development.

$30,000,000 added in conference for the acquisition of aircraft for the National Guard and Army Reserve.

$30,000,000 added for research and development of electric vehicles ($15,000,000 added in conference). Last year, Congress provided $45 million for electric vehicle research and development.

$23,000,000 added in the House for natural gas utilization equipment, to test and evaluate a natural gas fuel system and to develop a natural gas vehicle.

$17,400,000 added for civilian sporting events:

$14,000,000 for the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad and $3,000,000 for the Special Olympics for logistical support and personnel services. Despite a $66 million profit from the World Cup Soccer games in 1994, the Senate in the 104th Congress rejected by a vote of 21-77 an amendment requiring that the Department of Defense be reimbursed for expenses in supporting profitable civilian sporting events.

$15,000,000 added in conference for corps-level, surface-to-air missile research and development.

$11,000,000 added for two C-XX medium-range executive jets.

$10,000,000 added in conference for the manufacture of flexible artillery metal parts.

IV. District of Columbia

$300,000 for the Bicycle Improvement project.

V. Energy and Water

$80,630,000 for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-WV): $75,000,000 for highway Corridor H construction; $1,500,000 for southern West Virginia environmental restoration; $805,000 for the Huntington waterfront park; $800,000 for West Virginia port development; $700,00 for the Tygart River; $400,000 for West Virginia trailhead facilities; $400,000 for Tug Valley Greenway; $400,000 for the Cheat River Basin; $350,000 for a West Virginia comprehensive investigation; and $275,000 for the Charleston waterfront park. (Prima facie evidence why Sen. Byrd doesn’t want a balanced budget amendment.)

$22,000,000 added in conference for highway corridor construction in the state of Senate appropriator Mitch McConnell (R-KY) and House appropriator Harold Rogers (R-KY) via the Appalachian Regional Commission.

$10,265,000 for projects in the state of Senate Subcommittee Ranking Member J. Bennett Johnston (D-LA): $4,500,000 for the Ouachita River levees; $2,100,000 for the Red River; $800,000 for Lake Pontchartrain and vicinity; $600,000 for Black Bayou diversion; $500,000 for St. Tammany Parish; $400,000 for the Ouachita River Basin comprehensive; $300,000 for Mermentau, Vermillion, & Calcaieu Rivers; and $265,000 for the Bayou Tigre. (No wonder the folks back home think this guy walks on water.)

$5,000,000 added by the Senate for the second phase of the Biomedical Information Communication Center at the Oregon Health Sciences University in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark Hatfield (R-OR).

$400,000 added in conference for Army Corps of Engineers general investigation project for the Arkansas river levees.

VI. Foreign Operations

$19,600,000 added without authorization for the International Fund for Ireland. According to the bill that created the fund, “The United States government has identified two priorities in its contribution to the fund: job creation and the leveraging of additional investment into the economy.” In the past, this program has used American taxpayer dollars for a golf video and pony trekking centers.

$750,000 added in conference for the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

VII. Interior

$15,000,000 for the construction of a footbridge from New Jersey to Ellis Island in the state of Senate appropriator Frank R. Lautenberg (D-NJ). In 1994, the Senate rejected an 8 amendment, 43-56, to restore a recommendation of the House that would prevent the National Park Service (NPS) from completing an environmental impact study and withhold the remaining funds to construct the bridge. In 1992, the Senate earmarked $15,000,000 for the footbridge in the Transportation Appropriations bill, despite an NPS recommendation that a permanent bridge should not be constructed because “it represents an adverse effect to the cultural resources of the park.” (Bring us your tired, your poor, your huddled masses who can’t stomach the ferry ride.)

$7,157,000 added by the House for projects in the state of House Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Ralph Regula (R-OH): $5,157,000 for rehabilitation of the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area; and $2,000,000 for land acquisition and state assistance of the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

$5,689,000 added by the House for projects in the state of House appropriators Joseph McDade (R-PA) and John P. Murtha (D-PA): $3,595,000 for various projects through the Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission; $1,294,000 for the Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic site; and $800,000 for the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

$2,500,000 added by the Senate for land acquisition for the Tualatin National Wildlife Refuge in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark Hatfield (ROR).

$620,000 added by the Senate for trails at the New River Gorge National River in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-WV).

$500,000 added by the House in the district of House appropriator Richard Durbin (D-IL) for the construction at the Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Illinois, of Chalres Corneau’s house, a neighbor and friend of Abraham Lincoln.

VIII. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education

$34,409,000 for Consumer and Homemaking Education. According to testimony by former Assistant Secretary for Vocational and Adult Education Betsy Brand, “The States currently have active, well-established consumer and homemaking programs. Nationally, States and localities spend almost $20 for every Federal dollar provided for this activity. Given the existing level of state and local support for consumer and homemaking education, we believe this activity would continue at the local level without direct Federal support.” The president’s FY 1996 budget eliminates funding for this program.

$10,912,000 added by the Senate for foreign language assistance. According to the House report, “This program was not re-authorized by H.R. 6 as passed by the House on March 24, 1994. Terminating funding is consistent with the National Performance Review.” 9 $6,927,000 added by the Senate for cooperative education. According to the House report, “The Administration contends that cooperative education has been widely adopted among higher education institutions, often without Federal financial assistance, and therefore Federal support to promote this concept is no longer necessary.” The president’s FY 1996 budget eliminates funding for this program.

$4,000,000 added by the Senate for the Dwight D. Eisenhower leadership program to award grants of $175,000 to “stimulate and support the development of leadership skills among new generations of American college students.” The House report states it bluntly: “The Administration has stated that the activities supported by this program are part of many higher education institutions’ curriculum, and therefore the program is a low priority for Federal funding.” (The Senate could show some leadership by zeroing out this project.)

$936,000 added for the Palmer Chiropractic School in Davenport to conduct chiropractic demonstrations in the state of Senate Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Tom Harkin (D-IA).

IX. Legislative Branch

$2,500,000 added by the Senate for renovation of the Coolidge Auditorium and Whittal Pavillion.

$1,000,000 added by the Senate for exhibit space and environmental work through the Architect of the Capitol.

X. Military Construction

Testifying before the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the Pentagon’s Inspector General, Derek J. Vander Schaaf, said, “Every military construction project in the Department of Defense is suspect,” because justifications for construction are often “incomplete, poorly documented, or otherwise flawed.” How about these suspects?

$35,376,000 added by the House for projects in the state of House appropriators Joseph McDade (R-PA) and John Murtha (D-PA): $17,000,000 for an industrial operations facility, Tobyhanna Army Depot; $6,000,000 for pier 4 rehabilitation (Phase II), Philadelphia Naval Shipyard; $4,500,000 for renovation and modernization of foundry (Phase II), Philadelphia Naval Shipyard; $3,594,000 for the Army National Guard armory, Westmoreland County/Mount Pleasant Township; $2,300,000 to renovate the Navy Reserve Center, Folsom; and $1,982,000 for the Army National Guard Armory, Armstrong County/Ford City.

$29,100,000 added by the House for projects in the state of House appropriator and subcommittee member Steny Hoyer (D-MD): $10,000,000 for advance system 10 integration facility (Phase III); $6,400,000 for denitration/acid mix facility, Indian Head NSWC; $4,200,000 for Air Interoperability Center (Phase I), Patuxent NAWC; $4,000,000 to upgrade power plant, Indian Head NSWC; $2,600,000 for electrical distribution facility, Edgewood Arsenal; and $1,900,000 to replace a fire station, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis.

$16,680,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator and subcommittee member Ted Stevens (R-AK): $6,380,000 for an army scout aviation operations facility at Bethel Army National Guard Base; $5,300,000 for an engineering maintenance facility at Kulis Air National Guard Base; $4,000,000 for a ramp upgrade at Elmendorf Air Force Base; and $1,000,000 for utility upgrade at Elmendorf Air Force Base. (The new Alaskan pipeline.)

$13,300,000 added in conference for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Mitch McConnell (R-KY): $8,000,000 for a tactical equipment shop (Phase I), Fort Campbell; $5,300,000 for a multipurpose training range, Fort Knox.

$6,970,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Arlen Specter (R-PA): $6,200,000 for Army National Guard barracks and $770,000 for electrical targeting system upgrade at Fort Indiantown Gap.

XI. Transportation

Transportation Secretary Federico F. Pena criticized the earmarks for special transportation projects, saying they came at the expense of the overall federal-aid highway program, handing the decision-making power to members of the appropriations committees. The president’s FY 1996 budget echoes this view, proposing “to cancel $400 million in 1995 funding for highway demonstration projects, thus reducing earmarked funding for projects that often do not meet the most critical needs of States and regions to which they are awarded.” Under the Congressional Budget Office’s rules, which assume that funds for earmarked projects are spent at a faster rate than grants, $3 in appropriators’ special projects cost as much in the first year as $4 in the federal-aid program.

$40,000,000 added by the Senate in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-WV): $35,000,000 for highway Corridor H construction (on top of the $75,000,000 in Energy and Water Appropriations); and $5,000,000 for Mercer/McDowell Counties, Route 52.

$28,000,000 added by the Senate in the state of Senate Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Frank R. Lautenberg (D-NJ): $15,000,000 for Routes 4 and 7, Bergen County; $4,500,000 for the I-280 connector, Newark; $4,500,000 for Route 21/McCarter Highway, Newark; and $4,000,000 for the West Shore Line.

$15,800,000 added by the Senate for the Pittsburgh busway project in the state of Senate appropriator and subcommittee member Arlen Specter (R-PA).

$15,800,000 added by the Senate for the Natcher Bridge in Owensboro, Kentucky.

$4,450,000 added by the House for railroad relocation, Lafayette, Indiana, in the district of House appropriator John Myers (R-IN).

$3,500,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-HI): $2,500,000 for Kihei Road, Maui; and $1,000,000 for Saddle Road.

$2,500,000 added by the Senate in the state of Senate Appropriations Chairman Mark Hatfield (R-OR) for the Columbia Gorge Highway.

$1,500,000 added in conference for the Yolo County, California, bus facility.

$1,250,000 added by the House for two projects in Thomasville, North Carolina: $625,000 for the Peace Street surface transportation project and $625,000 for Unity Street. (No Frugality Street in Thomasville?)

XII. Treasury and Postal Service

The Senate Environment and Public Works Committee in 1994 joined CAGW, the General Accounting Office and the National Performance Review in criticizing the excessive cost of courthouse construction: “The majority staff found that substantial increases in Federal courthouse construction often have been accompanied by uncontrolled and excessive spending. The report recommends that a moratorium be placed on the approval of all new federal courthouse construction until the construction program has been reformed.”

$95,908,000 for projects in the state of former Senate Subcommittee Chairman Dennis DeConcini (D-AZ): $81,708,000 for a U.S. courthouse in Tucson ($69 million above the budget request); $5,000,000 for a 150-room dormitory at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC); $2,400,000 for the design, acquisition, and preparation of a facility dedicated to periodic firearms requalification and training at the FLETC; $2,200,000 for a grant to the Federal Aviation Administration for a runway protection zone, Bullhead City; $2,100,000 for a new dining hall at the FLETC in Tucson; $2,000,000 for a grant to the Arizona Historical Documents Education Foundation, Tucson; and $500,000 for firearms ranges at the FLETC, Tucson. In another twist of fate, former Sen. DeConcini also had two buildings renamed the “Ora Webster DeConcini” buildings or facilities and the “Evo A. DeConcini Federal Building and Courthouse” after his mother and father. (Living monuments to the former senator’s generosity with other people’s money.)

$44,342,000 added without authorization for a U.S. courthouse in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in the district of Rep. Steven Schiff (R-NM).

$23,200,000 added without authorization for a U.S. courthouse in Long Island, New York.

$12,000,000 added without authorization for consolidation at the University of Hawaii- Hilo, in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-HI).

$6,446,000 added by the House for a U.S. courthouse in Corpus Christi, Texas, in the district of Rep. Solomon Ortiz (D-TX).

$5,000,000 added in conference without authorization for a transfer to the Rowley Secret Service Training Center, Beltsville, Maryland, in the district of House Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Steny Hoyer (D-MD). (If we told you anymore about it, we’d have to kill you.)

$2,820,000 added by the House without supporting authorization legislation for a U.S. courthouse in Steubenville, Ohio. Congress is continuing with this project despite criticism from local judges that an additional courthouse is unnecessary. In a letter to Congress, U.S. District Judge James Graham plainly stated: “In my opinion, the construction of a courthouse in Steubenville and the creation of additional judgeships there would be a monumental waste of the taxpayers’ money.” (Congress is guilty of taxpayer abuse on all counts.)

XIII. Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development

The House VA-HUD bill did not contain any HUD special purposes grants. In an election-year pork frenzy, Senate appropriators added $135 million in unauthorized, unrequested, and non-competitively awarded special purpose grants. The House-Senate conferees further added $155 million in grants, bringing the total to $290 million. Although many of the projects sound like worthy candidates for federal funding, they violate the procedures for awarding discretionary funds through fair and open competition based on clear and understandable funding criteria that were adopted by Congress in the 1989 HUD Reform Act. Congress last earmarked funds for special purpose grants in FY 1993 totaling $260 million, $110 million more than FY 1992.

$22,100,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-WV): $10,000,000 for construction of new libraries at Huntington and Beckley; $5,000,000 for continued capital costs for science and education activities, Shepherdstown; $4,000,000 for construction of a new ambulatory care clinic, Lewisburg; $1,500,000 added in conference for the city of Moundsville, for local housing initiatives and downtown revitalization; $1,000,000 added in conference for the city of Parkersburg, for economic development and downtown revitalization efforts; 13 and $600,000 added in conference for the city of Wheeling for education and recreational opportunities for at-risk youth, and the acquisition and renovation of dilapidated housing.

$10,400,000 added by the Senate for the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark O. Hatfield (R-OR): $25,000,000 for a science education facility, Newpork; $2,200,000 for capital costs to expand social service activities, Portland; and $1,200,000 for economic development activities in Hood River, state of Oregon.

$7,900,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Subcommittee Ranking Member Barbara A. Mikulski (D-MD): $3,200,000 for continued capital costs for high technology economic development activities, Baltimore; $1,450,000 added in conference for computer training and capital costs for a technical training center, Villa Julie College, Stevenson; $1,450,000 added in conference for capital costs, including equipping and outfitting activities, connected to the renovation of the Knott Science Center, College of Notre Dame, Baltimore; $1,000,000 added in conference for expansion of St. Mary’s Community College in St. Mary’s County; $450,000 added in conference for construction of the Center for Political Participation at the University of Maryland at College Park; and $350,000 added in conference for the city of Kensington, to complete conversion of the town armory into a community center.

$7,850,000 added in conference for projects in the state of House Appropriations Subcommitee Chairman Jerry Lewis (R-CA) and Senate appropriator and subcommittee member Dianne Feinstein (D-CA): $1,650,000 to the Redlands Center for Science and Environmental Studies for capital costs associated with science education activies; $1,600,000 for the National Council of La Raza/Southwest Voter Research Institute; $1,000,000 to correct physical blight and to revitalize the Ware/Cunningham, city of Highland; $1,000,000 for America’s Economic Development Venture Area Neighborhoods, Communities and Enterprises program in the greater San Gabriel Valley; $1,000,000 to develop the Center for Pacific Rim Studies in San Francisco; $850,000 for the Partnership in Academic Excellence Foundation in Apple Valley for capital costs associated with science education activities; $500,000 to develop an industry incubation program in the North Highlands area to stimulate economic activities through technology transfer and secondary market industry development; and $250,000 for the new Bilingual Foundation of the Arts theater facility.

$5,300,000 added in conference for projects in the state of Senate appropriator and subcommittee member Alfonse D’Amato (R-NY): $1,500,000 for Columbia University for the development of the Audobon Research Park for biomedical research; $1,200,000 to develop a medical infrastructure project at New York Medical College; $750,000 for the development of a center to coordinate academic training programs for physical therapists at Veterans’ Administrations hospitals in Brooklyn; $750,000 for renovations of Iona College’s New Rochelle campus’ Ryan Library; $500,000 for an Applied Technology Center at Onondaga Community College; $300,000 for New York City Housing Authority to fund a law enforcement and social initiative for University Avenue Consolidated; and $300,000 to construct a new facility to house the Regional Educational Technology Center at Fordham University.

$3,750,000 added in conference for projects in the district of House Subcommittee Ranking Member Louis Stokes (D-OH): $1,750,000 to the city of East Cleveland for economic and community development activities; $1,000,000 to the Playhouse Square Foundation in Cleveland for redevelopment and restoration of the Allen Theater; and $1,000,000 for the Urban League of Greater Cleveland for planning and implementation of a job training and economic preparedness program.

$2,500,000 added in conference for projects in the district of House appropriator and subcommittee member Marcy Kaptur (D-OH): $2,000,000 to the Toledo Farmers’ Market to provide indoor and outdoor improvement and renovate existing facilities; and $500,000 for continued work in conjunction with the Toledo Area Transit Authority and other agencies to renovate Central Union Terminal.

$1,000,000 added in conference for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, in the state of House appropriator Tom Bevill (D-AL) to assist in the expansion of a small business incubator program at the University of Alabama.

$500,000 added by the Senate for the state of Senate appropriator Dale Bumpers (D-AR) for the Arkansas enterprise group for the development of a wood products modernization and market development fund.

The following grants made through the Environmental Protection Agency were not requested by the president and requested by only one chamber of Congress:

$2,500,000 added by the Senate for the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-WV): $1,500,000 for the Alternate Transportation Fuels Center and $1,000,000 for the National Environmental Training Center at West Virginia University.

$400,000 added by the Senate for the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-HI) for the Maui Algal bloom crisis. This program was initially funded through DOC. According to DOC sources, there is no algal bloom crisis and therefore no need to appropriate more funds. The administration requested that this program be terminated in FY 1995. (That’s not algae, that’s your money.)

Historical Trends

SpendingEarmarks